Certainly, the ascension to power of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) has significantly shaped China’s history in the 20th century. While the CCP had grown from a set of incongruent small knowledgeable groups to a more thoroughly organized Leninist party in its early years, the Long March saw the party getting significantly drained by 1937, in the confines of the dusty caves in remote Yenan. It was only a decade later that the CCP came to rule China; this is the focus of this essay.
One of the key transformative goals of the CCP in its founding was to become a meticulously organized Leninist party. It is very important to note that the CCP was a straight creation of the intellectual ferment that accompanied the demonstrations that were against imperialists. These are commonly called the May Fourth Movement (Jun, 113).
BUILDING A STATE
Party and state, political subdivision and the Three Anti Campaign (1951-52): attack of bureaucrats
During its early years, the 1920s, the CCP grew from a collection of unequal small intellectual groups to an organized party. Political subdivision also emerged and resulted to the departure of the majority of the original members of the CCP and saw their replacement by persons who were toughened in the urban tussles of the 1920s.
The Three Anti Campaign was a campaign carried out by the CCP in contradiction of the ills of corruption, waste as well as the bureaucratic spirit. This campaign was founded in early 1952. According to the campaign, persons were classified as either a tiger or a big tiger, depending with whether they had embezzled over 1,000 Yuan or over 10, 000 Yuan, respectively. This ‘tiger-hunting’ method by the CCP was accompanied by the following techniques, firstly: allocating the arrest rates of the tiger group to every branch of a party. Secondly, the CCP combined political investigation and the mobilization of masses. Thirdly, was utilizing blood relations, which involved mobilizing family members of suspected tiger or big tiger to admit to crimes committed (Jun, 112).
David Pietz reveals how important the Yellow River was to the urban growth, expansion of industries as well as agricultural intensification of the country. The attack of bureaucrats started with the entry of the United States into the Korean conflict. Mao sought to resist the imperialists from America through bringing out the American empire as a threat to the country (137).
REBUILDING THE ECONOMY
Supporting the notion that it would take a long time before the issue of socialist construction was discussed, Mao developed a moderate economic policy whose objective was to appeal to elements that were non-CCP. This allowed egalitarian distribution from the public to private capitalist production, as long as it did not overlook the people’s livelihood on a countrywide scale. A prosperous peasant economy was proposed in the countryside, as the land belonging to big property-owners was confiscated and redistributed. This was referred to as the Five Anti-campaign, targeting businesspersons or the capitalist class in efforts to create social equality. The Five Anti-campaign included theft of state property, bribery, tax evasion, stealing state information and cheating on public contracts. The CCP carried out a major transformation in land ownership. Under the new land reform program, land titles of about 45% of arable land owned by prosperous farmers and businesspersons were revoked (Pietz, 175).
Popularly known as the ideological remolding, the thought reform in China was a campaign employed by the Community Party of China in an attempt to reform the thinking or thought processes of Chinese citizens to accept Marxism-Leninism along with Maoism from 1951 to 1952 (Nailer 1). The thought reform also saw the birth of the concept of A New Socialist Man, an important concept which spread the concept that communist revolution can be predicted based on new men with new ideas, mind, attitudes, and emotions. It argued that before people can begin a new life they must abolish the old. Thus, both new and old generations were to undergo remodeling based on the communist ideology. The CPC used group influence to popularize the concept. It selected various model citizens comprising of peasants, youth, women and laborers create awareness of the attributes associated with a Socialist Man (Schoppa, 122). Notably, the thought reform also targeted intellectuals. The most intensive programs were carried out in revolutionary colleges established across China following the communist revolution. The CCP considered intellectuals as critical in transforming the minds of all Chinese citizens.
Mao was tasked with laying down a policy discernment with which he would formulate a foreign program for New China. To achieve this, he convened a conference in 1949 to discuss important decisions with regard to a foreign policy for New China. This is how he advanced the “leaning to one side” policy, which aimed to declare China inclination to socialism. Between 1950 and 1953, China was embroiled in the Korean War. North Korea invaded South Korea in efforts to unify the nation under the North government but the attempt failed. It cost over 2 million lives and had far-reaching implications for the Cold War. China supported North Korea while the U.S supported South Korea. Mao was afraid that the U.S would invade China (Pietz, 168).
THE END OF WORLD WAR II
This intense period was caused by the Germans and Japanese admittance of defeat to the Western Allies; the struggle in China, nonetheless, continued. In the scramble to take control over key port and centers before the Communists, the U.S. transported about half a million Nationalist troops by plane and ship all over the vast China and Manchuria, which were places they would have never reached otherwise. The troops were sent to the region to fight the Communists in the civil war. After the First Sino-Japanese Wars, Russia invaded Manchuria in their attempts to hasten their imperial expansion in Eurasia. The region became Russia’s enclave.
Notably, the Marshall Mission was a failed US diplomatic mission in attempts to negotiate with the Nationalists and Community Party of China into a Unified Government. Marshall hoped that establishing a non-Communist China could act as a buffer against the expansion of the Soviet Union. The negotiations took place from 1945 over a period of two years, but it bore no fruits, because the warring parties simply used the time to prepare for the Chinese Civil War (Schoppa, 127).
THE CIVIL WAR
A superior Kuomintang Force: During the civil war, the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) used a policy of strategic withdrawal by waging an attrition war and abandoning communication lines and cities to numerically superior and well-armed. In 1947, the PLA embarked on a counteroffensive and by the next summer, it had a strategic offensive stage largely using conventional warfare.
Nationalist (Kuomintang Problems): Kuomintang began to lose popularity and support of many due to myriad factors. They included demoralization, inflation, and autocracy. The majority of the population was peasants, and their living conditions had not improved. The problem was worsened by inflation, which made economic conditions hard for many people.
CCP Strengths: The CCP had a disciplined and organized party and military. The Long March allowed the CCP to develop guerrilla tactics following their retreat further into the mountains. They set up camps, increased support, and recruited more fighters largely from peasants. Considering that the majority of the Chinese were peasants, the CCP had the advantage of numbers coupled with the fact that these fighters knew the territory. The CCP was very organized and strategic as the Communists (Nailer, 5). The strength of the CCP did not just rely on its strategic and organized approach, but also support the local people. The party mobilized many rural peasants and recruited them as fighters.
In conclusion, this essay has revealed the strategies that the CCP embraced in its spirited fight to ascend to power, amid fierce conditions for the party and practices that led to an almost extinction in 1937. It was revealed that, for example, CCP gradually gained support from peasants. In addition, while this was taking place, China had been subjected to the conditions of the Versailles Treaty, which caused many elites to dissociate with western governments in favor of radical solutions based on communism. Once he Kuomintang began to lose touch with the Chinese people, Mao embraced Marxists ideas to fit with the predominantly agricultural society.