Question 1: (40 Points/40%) Define four (4) and only four of the listed terms. Each separate term definition is worth
ten (10) points. You will need to explain what the term means, but also how it is significant to the larger themes and context of World History. Definitions exceeding four in total will not be graded for credit.
For Questions 2 to 61, identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. There are 60-choice questions in this examination.
Question 1 Terms:
Great Leap Forward
Paleolithic Band Society
Han Imperial Bureaucracy
According to Jared Diamond, the humans who newly evolved germs, but those humans then evolved substantial resistance to the new diseases.
were the first to fall victim to the
O built and lived in crowded cities
O engaged in long-range trade
O domesticated animals
O migrated throughout Eurasia
According to Strayer the factor that left Sumerian cities vulnerable to outside forces was that
The priestly class in Sumerian cities grew too powerful and began to influence affairs in their own narrow
O There was frequent conflict between the secular rulers of the Sumerian cities (i.e. the kings) and the powerful religious class (i.e. the priests), which led this society to being divided amongst itself.
O epidemic diseases …
According to Strayer what he calls the "First Civilizations" (and the states they created) were different from the chiefdoms that came before them by
ON their capacity for violence and coercion over their subjects.
ON their use of persuasion, prestige, and gifts to back up their authority.
All of the above.
TO their tendency towards more equality among their subjects.
Anthropologists believe that the earliest of our hominid ancestors and the first species to habitually
walk on two legs was
O Homo habilis.
O Australopithecus robustus.
O Australopithecus africanus.
O Australopithecus afarensis.
Which of the following animals was NOT independently domesticated in the Fertile Crescent?
The end of the last Ice Age laid the foundation for the Agricultural Revolution by
O breaking the land bridge that connected the Americas to Siberia.
O increasing population density by forcing humans to move toward the equator.
O none of the above.
O creating a warmer, wetter, and seasonal climate.
Which of the following has NOT been put forward as an explanation for early cave paintings?
that the cave paintings are early maps
O that the cave paintings served spiritual or religious purposes
O that the cave paintings were a form of hunting magic
According to Strayer, which of the following were NOT connected by a land bridge created during the last Ice Age?
O Britain and continental Europe
Siberia and Alaska
North America and Europe
O Continental South East Asia with Indonesia
The first truly urban society in world history was
Sargon the Great
O built what may have been the first empire in human history,
all of the above.
O was king of Akkadia.
O conquered the cities of Sumer.
The factors that led to agriculture's development in the Fertile Crescent 10,000 years ago included
O complex geography and many ecological zones.
O Mediterranean climate.
O many different wild species of plants and animals that could be domesticated.
O all of the above.
Which of the following is NOT a primary characteristic of complex societies?
O Full time specialization of labor.
O Monumental Public Works.
O Concentration of economic surplus.
O Urban population.
According to the historian Karl Wittfogel, the main factor that contributed to the development of complex societies was
O population growth
O all of the above.
The territory of ancient Mesopotamia (and Sumer) is prestantly occupied by which modern country?
The first full-fledged writing system in human history that emerged in Mesopotamia is called
All of following were factors in the development of agriculture EXCEPT
O population growth of hunters and gatherers.
O the need for a more nutritious diet among hunters and gatherers.
O the more pronounced seasonality of the climate.
O the extinction of the Pleistocene megafauna.
The city in ancient Mesopotamia that demonstrated the power of writing in complex societies by formulating one of history's first written law codes: Hammurabi's Code.
"Neolithic Revolution" refers to
O the development of complex societies.
O the development of more sophisticated stone tools.
O the development of agriculture.
O human migration out of Africa.
After the development of agriculture
O all of the above.
O a specialization of labor was eventually established.
O complex societies began.
O cities were formed.
The first human beings to begin experimenting with growing crops in the Levantine Corridor developed a Mesolithic culture, which we now refer to as
O both Natufians and Sumerians.
Writing first originated
to record the basic tenets of religion. HOW
O as a means of recording food inventory.
in the form of the short story O
O to preserve the history of a people.
The site in Southeastern Turkey (dating to 10000-8000 B.C.E.) that has recently questioned our understanding of how human society developed.
O Göbekli Tepe.
O 'Ain Mallaha.
O Machu Picchu.
Early Pleistocene hunter and gatherer bands
O lived in surprising complex and rigid social structures.
O were highly equal in social structure.
were always in danger of starvation.
O had men provide most of the food while women cared for children
A food surplus
O is what is not consumed by the farmer as food or used to reproduce the crops for the next growing season.
O means fewer people are needed for agricultural work.
encourages the specialization of labor.
O all of the above.
The Mesopotamian temple
O was where the priests developed and used writing to record the history of the city.
was the location for many human sacrifices.
O required all of its workers to focus on spiritual activities to maintain their religious purity.
O originally functioned like a large depot for the collection and redistribution of foodstuffs.
is Greek for the "ſland) between two vers" and refers to the fertile flood plain between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers that was settled by intensive agriculturalists in
approximately 8000 B.C.E.
"Hafted tools" refer to
the Great Leap Forward
O any distanced weapon (like a spear or bow-and-arrow), which appeared after
a cutting edge mounted on a wood or bone handle to give the user more leverage, which appeared after
O crudely shaped stones held in the hand, which were used before
O a tool that was shaped to cut (usually animal hide), which were made with finer edges after
Very gradually, over many generations, writing in ancient Mesopotamia became
O all of the above.
O more wedge-shaped.
O more phonetic.
O more linear
Which of the following provided the economic foundation for complex society or civilization?
O all of the above
O slavery and substantial architecture
O agriculture and food surplus
O patriarchy and state organization
According to Jared Diamond it was only the lack of production did not evolve in some areas of the planet Earth.
suitable wild plants
O agricultural knowledge
O hunters and gatherers
O fertile soil
that might explain why food
Among the basic activities that make up the practice of agriculture, the selective sowing (planting) of seeds and breeding of animals is called
refers to infectious diseases that are transmitted between species: often from
animals to humans (and then from humans to other humans).
The term "virgin land outbreaks most directly refers to
O when an isolated human population is put into contact with another human population
O when a disease becomes endemic to a region and the population develops immunity to it.
O when a disease moves to a population with no immunity.
when a human population moves into an agriculturally fertile area that has never been farmed before
The division of the Han Dynasty into the "Former Han" and the "Later Han" is marked by
O the beginning of the examination system.
O Wang Mang's seizure of the imperial throne.
O the death of Qin Shi Huangdi.
O the death of Han Wudi.
The Emperor Qin Shihuangdi dealt with critics by
O making them a part of his government.
O doing nothing, which eventually resulted in the collapse of the government.
O extensively reforming the imperial government.
O executing them.
According to Confucianism, people learn proper social behavior towards different people in different relationships through
O strictly applied laws.
O reflection and introspection.
O scholarly activity.
rituals and social practices.
The Emperor Wu ushered in
a rigid caste system in China
O a period of asceticism in China.
China's first imperial academy.
O a century of peace in China.
O emphasized the importance of social relationships.
O criticized Confucianism for teaching that all people are equal.
O taught that the best way to live was to be in harmony with nature.
O believed that Daoists had a responsibility to enter government service in order to promote moral behavior.
In order to consolidate his rule and unify his empire, Qin Shihuangdi did all of the following EXCEPT
TO build defensive walls to secure the borders of the empire.
O establish an examination system to select the most talented people for government jobs
O build many roads to enable easy movement of his armies.
standardize the laws, currencies, and weights and measurements throughout the empire.
Bloodletting featured prominently in Maya religious belief mainly because
O the Maya believed that blood was always connected with menstruation, which was linked closely to fertility
O blood contained the "essence" (or spirit) of the individual and by drinking it one would gain that individual's power.
O the gods …
Which statement best describes the Confucian attitude toward the past?
O The past was a golden age that modern people should strive to restore.
O People should live in the present rather than paying attention to the past.
O History teaches valuable moral lessons, but for the most part people should look toward the future rather than the past.
The world goes through cycles, so the past will literally come again.
What classical Chinese philosophy was based on the belief that human society needs clear laws, strictly enforced to maintain order and stability?
Which of the following statements is true? The Emperor Qin Shihuangdi (the First Sovereign Emperor of China):
O conquered the nomadic people living to the north of China.
O had a huge lavish tomb built for himself,
O broke the power of the aristocrats.
O established the first imperial university.
In the first millennium B.C.E., new Chinese thinkers and leaders, called the Hundred Schools of
O stressed the importance of talent over birth in choosing political officials. I began to set aside court protocol in order to create a more flexible system of governance.
O looked back to a golden age in the past to show them how to restore order.
I began to challenge the old cultural orthodoxy.
Both the Qin and Han Emperors considered commodities.
O wine and salt
O salt and silver
O iron and salt
O gold and iron
to be nationally important
Before China was unified into one empire and one society in 221 B.C.E., the dynasty that served as the "symbolic" rulers of all the other independent shates was the
O Xin dynasty.
O Qin dynasty.
O Han dynasty.
O None of the above.
Liu Bang's most noteworthy contribution to Chinese history was
O being the last Han Emperor
O writing the first comprehensive history of ancient China.
O founding the Han Dynasty
The Emperor Qin Shihuangdi
O ruled with Lady Lu.
O won the respect of the subject through benevolent rule.
O undertook construction of the Great Wall.
O was killed by Liu Bang.
Among the philosophies that developed during the Hundred Schools of Thought, the one philosophical system that served practically to unite the empire under Qin Shi Huangdi was
O None of the above.
A complex ritual calendar of 260 days was a feature of which cultural region?
O the Andes
Maya religion was centered on the belief that
O the gods expected to be honored by their human subjects through bloodletting
O the gods maintained the agricultural cycle.
O the gods had created human beings out of maize and water
O All of the above.
is evidence that until ca. 500 C.E. Teotihuacan did not experience war to any
O Teotihuacan art rarely depicts warriors
O Teotihuacan grew rapidly and prospered
O Teotihuacan had no defensive walls
Teotihuacan had no defensive walls and its art rarely depicts warriors
The Maya city that established a larger political state by integrating captives into their society rather than using them as sacrificial victims.
O Chichen Itza
O O Tikal
was such a precious commodity that it was actually used by the Maya as money.
Scenes of everyday life in Moche were documented in Mochian
O all of the above.
The roles of women in ancient Maya society appear to have included all of the following EXCEPT:
O the weaving of textiles.
O athletic competition in the ball game.
O political leadership.
O ensuring there was an ample supply of venison.
What was the purpose of the Maya ball game?
O All of the above.
For sporting purposes: sometimes players or spectators lay bets on the outcome of contests between professional ball players.
O As a political ritual honoring the conclusion of treaties between cities.
O Pleasing the gods by shedding human blood: losers become sacrificial victims and faced torture and execution immediately following the match.
The Mochian civilization of the Andes:
O relied on llamas to transport political officials across the empire.
O was united through a kingly political structure supported by family clans.
O developed occasional long-distance trade with clans along the coast.
O organized an integrated economic network to take advantage of the different crops and products that could be grown in different environments.
The most probable reasons for the collapse of Mochian civilization is
O invasion and conquest by the empires of Mesoamerica.
O a long period of intense rain and flooding followed by a period of intense drought.
O internal dissension and civil war.
O failure their irrigation system and harvests.
The ----- dominated the "inner city of early Sumerian cities.
O market place